Medicaoncology Stomach Cancer

What is Stomach Cancer?

The stomach is a muscular pouch that lies immediately below your ribs in the upper part of your abdomen. Your stomach takes in and holds the food you eat before breaking it down and digesting it. Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, develops when aberrant cells divide and grow at an abnormally fast rate, resulting in a tumor mass in the stomach lining. Stomach cancer usually has no early symptoms and grows over a long period of time. As a result, it goes undiagnosed in its early phases. It goes untreated until it spreads to other sections of the stomach or to distant parts of the body.

Medica’s oncology department excels in providing world-class cancer treatment driven by their collective clinical excellence of over 30+ years. With a multidisciplinary approach to treating all types and forms of cancer, our oncologists and onco-surgeons are supported by the latest cancer treatment technologies along with a team of highly-skilled reconstructive surgeons who deliver extensive treatment to all of our patients, adults and children alike.

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    There are several forms of stomach cancer. Some of them are:


    The most prevalent type of stomach cancer is adenocarcinoma, which develops in the inner lining of the stomach.


    Lymphomas are immune system malignancies that can start anywhere in the lymphatic system. Stomach lymphomas are uncommon, accounting for only 4% of stomach malignancies.

    Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Gastrointestinal cancers begin in the stomach’s hormone-producing cells. The interstitial cells of Cajal are an uncommon kind of stomach cancer (ICCs). GIST cells resemble muscle nerve cells when seen under a microscope. They can appear anywhere in the digestive tract, although the stomach accounts for 60 to 70% of all cases.

    Carcinoid Tumors

    These types of tumors generally occur in the hormone producing cells of the stomach. There are three types:

    • ECL-cell carcinoids of type I and II rarely spread and remain in place.
    • ECL-cell carcinoids of type III are the most aggressive, necessitating more rigorous therapy.

    Early stage stomach cancer is frequently asymptomatic, which is why it is so difficult to detect in its early stages. The following are some of the indications and symptoms of stomach cancer:

    • A lack of hunger
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Pain in the abdomen
    • Indigestion and heartburn
    • Vomiting and nausea
    • Abdominal swelling and fluid accumulation
    • Low RBC count(anemia)
    • An upper-abdominal feeling of fullness
    • Abdominal pain
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    It’s unclear what causes stomach cancer, while research has discovered a number of risk factors.

    Doctors know that stomach cancer starts when the DNA of a cell in the stomach changes. The DNA of a cell includes the instructions that tell it what to do. When healthy cells die, the alterations tell the cell to grow swiftly and continue to live. The growing cells form a tumor, which can infiltrate and destroy healthy tissue. Cells can break off and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body over time.

    Other Risk Factors:

    The following are some of the factors that enhance the risk of stomach cancer:

    • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Obesity
    • A salty and smoked-foods-heavy diet
    • A lack of fruits and vegetables in one’s diet
    • Stomach cancer in the family
    • Helicobacter pylori infection
    • Inflammation in the stomach for a long time (gastritis)
    • Smoking
    • Polyps in the stomach

    The number of stages of stomach cancer are listed below.

    Stage 0: Cancer is only seen in the mucosal lining or the deepest layer of the stomach wall at this stage.

    Stage I: Based on the extent of the cancer, this is separated into two categories: stage IA and stage IB.

    • Stage IA: The cancer has entirely spread through the mucosal, or deepest layer, of the stomach wall in this case.
    • Stage IB: The tumor has spread through the mucosal layer of the stomach wall, and up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor or the muscularis, or middle layer of the stomach wall, can be identified in stage IB cancer.

    Stage II: When stomach cancer has progressed to this stage, it has spread in the following ways:

    • It has spread entirely through the stomach wall’s mucosal layer and is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor.
    • Spread to the muscularis, or middle layer of the stomach, was discovered in up to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor and continues to be found.
    • It has spread to the stomach wall’s serosal layer, but not to the lymph nodes or other organs.

    Stage III: Stages IIIA and IIIB are subdivided further.

    • Stage IIIA: Stage IIIA indicates that the cancer has progressed to the following areas:
      • The muscularis, or middle layer of the stomach wall, is found in 7 to 15 lymph nodes close to the tumor.
      • The serosal layer of the stomach wall, which can be found in 1 to 6 lymph nodes near the tumor.
      • Organs close to the stomach, but not lymph nodes or other bodily components.
    • Stage IIIB: Stage IIIB cancer has progressed to the stomach wall’s serosal layer and has been discovered in 7 to 15 lymph nodes near the tumor.

    Stage IV: The cancer has spread to organs around the stomach and at least one lymph node, or more than 15 lymph nodes or other distant body regions in this stage.


    Before drawing up a plan for diagnostic tests, the doctor will want to know about the patient’s medical history. The doctor will also want to know if any family members have been diagnosed with a tumor. The following are the diagnostic tests for stomach cancer:

    Blood Tests: These examine the body for symptoms of malignancy.

    Upper Endoscopy: To inspect the inside of the stomach, the doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube with a small camera down the mouth.

    Upper GI: A chalky liquid called barium coats the stomach before an X-ray scan for image clarity in the upper GI series.

    Other Imaging Tests: A CT scan is a type of X-ray that creates detailed images of the inside of the body.

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    Oncology is one of Medica’s superspecialty departments. Our team of doctors have been treating patients suffering from different forms of cancer through dedication and expert knowledge. Treatment for stomach cancer depends on certain criterias such as the patient’s age, history of the tumor and other medical illnesses, the stage of progression of your tumor or cancer, etc. But below are some of the most commonly opted for treatment in case of patients suffering from stomach cancer:

    Surgery: Surgery can be used to eliminate stomach cancer that has not spread by removing a portion of the esophagus or stomach where the tumor is present. Near-to-the-stomach lymph nodes are usually removed as well.

    Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy can be used before surgery to reduce a tumor and make it easier to remove in cancers of the gastroesophageal junction and the stomach body (neoadjuvant radiation). After surgery, radiation therapy can be used to destroy any cancer cells that remain in the area around your esophagus or stomach (adjuvant radiation).

    Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy can be given before surgery to assist reduce a tumor so it can be removed more readily (neoadjuvant chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is often used to destroy any cancer cells that remain in the body after surgery (adjuvant chemotherapy). Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are frequently used together. Chemotherapy may be used alone to relieve signs and symptoms in persons with advanced stomach cancer.

    Targeted Therapy: Drugs that target specific defects within cancer cells or that direct your immune system to kill cancer cells are used in targeted therapy.


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