Medicaoncology penile Cancer

What is Penile Cancer?

Penile cancer occurs when cells on or in a man's penis grow out of control. It usually begins in skin cells and spreads throughout the body.

It's really uncommon. It can, however, be treated, especially if caught early.

There are around 200 forms of cancers based on the tissue or organ where the cancer develops, and these are referred to as primary cancers. The term "metastasis" refers to the process of cancer spreading from one tissue to another. Malignancies that have migrated from their main sites, or where they first emerged, are known as secondary or metastatic cancers.

Medica’s oncology department excels in providing world-class cancer treatment driven by their collective clinical excellence of over 30+ years. With a multidisciplinary approach to treating all types and forms of cancer, our oncologists and onco-surgeons are supported by the latest cancer treatment technologies along with a team of highly-skilled reconstructive surgeons who deliver extensive treatment to all of our patients, adults and children alike.

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    Types

    There are various types of cells in each type of tissue in the penis. These cells can lead to several types of penile cancer. The distinctions are significant because they influence the severity of the malignancy and the sort of treatment required.

    Almost all penile malignancies begin in the penis’ skin cells.

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Squamous cells, which are small, flat skin cells, produce these. They can appear anywhere on the penis’ skin, but they’re most prevalent in the foreskin and the organ’s head (glans). They are slow-growing tumors that account for more than 95% of all penile malignancies. Verrucous carcinoma and Bowen’s disease are two subtypes. If the cancer has not progressed to any tissues beneath the skin’s surface, it is known as carcinoma in situ (CIS) or penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN).

    Adenocarcinoma

    These are formed in the sweat gland cells. Some are classified as an extramammary form of Paget’s disease.

    Melanomas

    These form in the pigment-producing cells of the skin. These tumors are less prevalent than squamous cell carcinomas, although they are notorious for spreading quickly.

    Basal Cell Carcinomas

    These appear in the cells of the skin’s deepest layer. They have a modest growth rate and are unlikely to spread.

    Sarcoma

    Sarcomas develop in the blood vessels or connective tissues, such as the muscles, fat and cartilage. These tend to grow very quickly if left untreated.

    Symptoms

    The earlier a man is diagnosed with penile cancer, the better. If it’s discovered early on, there’s a strong chance it’ll be treated successfully and cured. The condition can worsen if diagnosis is delayed. Treatment for advanced cancer is likely to be less effective and disfiguring.

    When you urinate, you may see and feel your penis, which can aid in early detection of the condition. Penile cancer is more likely in men who haven’t been circumcised. However, every man should be aware of the signs and symptoms of penile lesions.

    If you see any of the following on your foreskin, shaft, or head of your penis, you should see your doctor:

    • A thickening and/or color change in a skin region
    • Feeling a bump on the penis
    • An ulcer (sore) that doesn’t heal
    • A rash that is crimson and velvety in appearance.
    • Crusty lumps of varying sizes
    • Growths that are flat and bluish-brown in color
    • Smelly discharge

    Unfortunately, penile cancer is frequently overlooked until it has progressed. Patients are hesitant or ashamed to discuss their genitals. They may also be terrified of penis treatment or surgery. If you observe any of these symptoms, schedule an appointment with a health care practitioner as soon as possible.

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    Causes

    Body fluids trapped in the foreskin are thought to be the source of penile tumors. If they aren’t wiped away on a regular basis, they have the potential to cause cancer. Penile cancer is more common in older men and smokers. Penile cancer can be caused by diseases like AIDS.

    The human papillomavirus is another probable cause (HPV). HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. Antibodies to HPV-16 have been discovered in a large number of penile cancer patients. HPV has been linked to cervical cancer in the past.

    Stages

    The results of a physical exam, biopsy, and any imaging tests that may have been performed are used to assign a clinical stage to penile cancer. The pathologic stage (also known as the surgical stage) can be established if surgery was performed to evaluate adjacent lymph nodes for malignancy. The pathologic stage, which is what is utilized in the table below, is usually more accurate.

    Because penile cancer staging is complicated, ask your doctor to explain it to you in a way you can comprehend.

    Diagnosis

    If you or your doctor suspects anything abnormal, they will perform the following tests on you to make sure of your condition:

    • Physical Examination: Your doctor will examine you and ask you questions about your symptoms.
    • Imaging Tests X-rays, CT scans, ultrasounds, and magnetic resonance imaging are examples of imaging tests (MRI). These examine your internal organs for malignancies or other symptoms of cancer spread.
    • Biopsy: A biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a sample of A little sample of tissue from a skin lesion on your penis is taken by your doctor. It is subjected to laboratory tests to see if it contains cancer cells.
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    Treatment

    If penile cancer is detected early, it can be treated successfully and with minimal risk. A skin cream may be used to treat a tumor that is on top of the skin. There aren’t many adverse effects with this cream. Small lesions can also be treated with external beam radiation.

    A tiny local excision or “Mohs surgery” may be performed if the lesion is larger but still the size of a pea. This is a sort of surgery in which aberrant tissue is scraped away layer by layer until normal tissue is reached. Both of these treatments should leave the penis looking and functioning normally. However, cautious follow-up is required to ensure that there is no early return.

    It’s unlikely that cancer has progressed to the lymph nodes if the tumors are tiny. As a result, removing the lymph nodes isn’t always essential.

    Larger lesions necessitate the removal of more tissue. Lymph nodes in the genital area may potentially be removed or drained by your surgeon. It’s possible that a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy will be required. When the cancer has progressed, the entire penis may need to be removed.

    The importance of early detection cannot be overstated. Not only will you get greater results, but you’ll also have additional therapy options.

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