Medicaoncology ovarian Cancer

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. Cancerous cells developing in the ovary result in ovarian cancer. The disease progresses without any treatment. It may spread to other organs. Ovarian cancer is the eighth most prevalent disease in women and the 18th most common cancer overall on a global scale.

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    Ovarian cancer is a common cancer in women. It may develop in one or both ovaries. There are four types of ovarian cancer.

    Epithelial Ovarian Carcinomas

    They are primarily benign ovarian tumors. These generally occur in epithelial cells. They can reach other organs of the body. It can spread to organs of the pelvis and abdomen.

    Germ Cell Tumors

    Germ cells tumors are the tumors of reproductive cells. These are present in the eggs of females and sperms of men. Therefore, women may have this cancer at a younger age.

    Stromal Cell Tumors

    Stromal cell tumors are more common than ovarian germ cell tumors. It is because cancer develops in the stromal cell. These cells are responsible for making female hormones of estrogen and progesterone.

    Ovarian Sarcoma

    Ovarian sarcoma develops in the connective tissue of ovarian cells. Abdominal pain is a common symptom of this type of cancer.


    Most women may have mild symptoms or may not experience any symptoms of ovarian cancer. Women can encounter its symptoms only in advanced stages. The symptoms may include:

    • Vaginal bleeding
    • Worse back pain
    • Lower abdominal pain
    • Irregular or abnormal periods
    • Sudden weight loss or weight gain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Nausea, vomiting, or gas
    • Frequent urination
    • Changes in bowel movements
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    Several factors increase the risk of ovarian cancer. Some of them are:

    Age: Women between 60years and 80 years of age have a high risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, increasing age increases the risk of ovarian cancer.

    Family History: Women with a family member suffering from ovarian cancer are at high risk.

    Genetic Mutation: Genetic mutations increase the risk of ovarian cancer, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations.

    Obesity: Obesity or being overweight keeps you at high risk of cancer. Controlling menopause through hormone replacement therapy can lead to ovarian cancer.

    Endometriosis: The formation of tissues outside of the uterus similar to the internal cells of the uterus can cause ovarian cancer. The disease is known as endometriosis. Women may experience pain.


    Stage I: Ovarian cancer in its early stages is referred to as stage I.

    A, B, and C are the three substages of this stage:

    • Stage IA: The cancer cells are found in one ovary or fallopian tube at this stage.
    • Stage IB: The cancer cells are found in both ovaries or both fallopian tubes at this stage.
    • Stage IC: One or both ovaries or fallopian tubes contain cancer cells, as well as one or more of the following:
      • Cancer cells might be found on the exterior of the ovaries or fallopian tubes.
      • The capsule, which protects the ovary, has burst open.
      • Cancer cells can be discovered in your peritoneal cavity, tissue lining, or abdominal fluid.

    Stage II: In stage II cancer, the cancer cells have already begun to spread. This stage is divided into two substages, A and B:

    • Stage IIA: The cancer has spread from the ovary or ovaries to the fallopian tubes and/or the uterus, or it has spread from the fallopian tubes to the ovaries and/or uterus.
    • Stage IIB: In this stage, the cancer has spread in the peritoneal cavity to your bladder, colon, or rectum.

    Stage III: Stage III cancer has progressed to a more advanced stage. A, B, and C are the three substages of this stage:

    • Stage IIIA: There are two ways to describe Stage IIIA:
      • The cancer cells have moved to the lymph nodes nearest to the abdomen, known as the retroperitoneal lymph nodes.
      • The surgeon cannot see the cancer with the naked eye, but the pathologist can see that the malignant cells have spread outside the pelvis to the peritoneum by examining the samples under a microscope (lining). It’s also possible that the malignancy has spread to adjacent lymph nodes.
    • Stage IIIB: The surgeon can see cancer inside the peritoneum, but it is still 2 cm or smaller. Outside of the pelvis, the cancer has spread. It’s possible that it’s spread to adjacent lymph nodes.
    • Stage IIIC: the cancer has spread to the peritoneum outside the pelvis and has expanded to a diameter of 2 cm or bigger. It’s also possible that it spread to the outside of the liver and/or spleen, as well as to adjacent lymph nodes.

    Stage IV: Ovarian cancer in Stage IV is the most advanced stage. A and B are the two substages:

    • Stage IVA: Cancer cells are discovered in excess fluid that has grown up around the lungs in stage IVA.
    • Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to organs and tissues outside of the abdomen, including lymph nodes in the groin, at stage IVB.

    Medica experts will find a method to create a treatment plan that is unique to you, regardless of the type or stage of your ailment.


    The detection and diagnosis of ovarian cancer are difficult. There is no reliable early diagnosis for ovarian cancer. But the doctors may suggest:

    • A complete pelvic examination.
    • Ultrasound, a transvaginal or pelvic ultrasound.
    • Radiological tests, such as transvaginal ultrasound or CT scan.
    • Blood tests such as CA-125.
    • Biopsy.

    Several tips help to prevent ovarian cancer. Some of them are:

    • Do not take hormone replacement therapy after ending the menstrual cycle.
      Manage body weight.
    • Use oral contraceptives to lower the risk of ovarian cancer.
    • Tubal ligation and hysterectomy can lower the risk of ovarian cancer.
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    There are several treatment options to manage ovarian cancer. Such treatments are local treatments, systemic treatments, and some standard methods.

    Local treatment approaches only the site of tumors without affecting other parts of the body. It includes surgery and radiation therapy.

    The systemic treatment used drugs to treat ovarian cancer. It can reach cancerous cells present in the whole body. The treatment includes chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy.

    Common approaches are used based on the stage of the tumors and some special situations.

    Through cutting-edge technologies and individualized multimodal treatment methods, the experts in our medical oncology department at Medica strive to prevent, screen, diagnose, and comprehensively treat a wide range of cancers.


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